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Deterministic Lockstep in Networked Games

  • Multiplayer games can increase player enjoyment through social interactions, cooperation, and competition. Their market popularity shows the success of especially networked multiplayer games, which pose new networking challenges to game developers. The main challenge is synchronizing game state across players. Research identifies deterministic lockstep, snapshot interpolation, and state-sync as primary methods for this task, each with distinct advantages and disadvantages. This work, and the master thesis this paper is based on, quantitatively evaluated deterministic lockstep, demonstrating its vertical (entity count) and horizontal (player count) scaling limitations and compares the method to snapshot interpolation. Lockstep supports minimum 16,000 entities for up to 10 players and a horizontal scaling of 40 or more players with 1024 entities. However, a negative correlation between entity and player count limits was observed, which was indicated by the maximum scaling configurations 30 players with 4096 entities or 20 players with 8192 entities. Snapshot interpolation faced a vertical limit with 4096 entities and 10 players and horizontally with 40 or more players and 1024 entities. The paper further contributes by comparing results to related work, summarizing synchronization methods, proposing a hybrid architecture model of deterministic lockstep with snapshot interpolation for re-synchronization and hot-joins, and deconstructing Unity Transport Package’s (UTP) network packets.

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Author:Paul Mieschke
Document Type:Researchpaper
Year of Completion:2024
Release Date:2024/04/10
Tag:Deterministic Lockstep; Networked Games
GND Keyword:Deterministic Lockstep; Networked Games
Page Number:10
Institutes:FB 1: Druck und Medien
DDC classes:000 Allgemeines, Informatik, Informationswissenschaft / 000 Allgemeines, Wissenschaft / 004 Informatik
Licence (German):License LogoCreative Commons - CC BY-NC-ND - Namensnennung - Nicht kommerziell - Keine Bearbeitungen 4.0 International